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What are the bases of power

What are the bases of power

               The bases of power cannot be discussed if we do not know what power itself means. Many people have different definitions of power depending on the context of the usage or the aspect of life it is being talked about. For instance, power in physics is the ability to do work, or power to a gym instructor is the strength gained as a product of exercises. However, we are not talking about that. We are interested in how power relates to our life experiences and what are the bases of power?

What is Power?

Power is the influence that leaders have over their followers. It can also mean the authority a leader has over his followers. An individual may have and use power, but a leader cannot be without power. The ability to influence their followers to achieve the team’s goal and improve their performances is what makes them leaders, and this cannot be done without power. Without power, the leaders look like one of the majorities. Their power is measured by the extent of the influence and motivation they have on their followers to achieve a peculiar goal even when they don’t want to do it.

BASES OF POWER
BASES OF POWER

While power and leadership might play different roles in some aspects, they are interwoven. I have seen people describe power as the ability to control people or their activities, but leaders use it to inspire and motivate their followers to achieve the best out of them. Leadership studies are in various styles with diverse nature and definitions.

What is a leader without power? Although not everyone knows what to do with power when they have it, an individual might be one of the most diplomatic and great personalities when still being a follower but might lose their heads when they get power. Nicole Lipkin, the author of the book “What keeps leaders up at night,” says in the book that “Power tends to get to people’s heads; We are not trained to handle power well.”

SIX (6) BASES OF POWER

Bases of power can be defined as the approach that leaders utilize to impact or influence their followers. There were first the five (5) bases which were identified and analyzed by social psychologists John R. P. French and Bertram Raven in 1959, and six (6) years later, Bertram Raven added the sixth (6th) base. Bases of power can be categorized into two power sources which are: Positional Power Sources and Personal Power Sources.

POSITIONAL POWER SOURCES OF BASES OF POWER

1.Legitimate Power:

This is a given power or trust in the followers or employees that the leader or the manager can make the right call or decisions. It comes from an elected, selected, or appointed position of power. This comes from the belief that a person has the formal right to make demands and expect others to be compliant and obedient.

It is a product of election (often in government or a big organization) or selection (also in a big organization having considered being eligible for the position). Nicole Lipkin added that “If you have this power, it’s essential that you understand that this power was given to you (and can be taken away)’ so don’t misuse it.”

BASES OF POWER
BASES OF POWER

These things often happen in government or any organization. When a person wins an election to be in a post or has been selected to be in a leadership position, if the majority believes the person deserves it, there will be a smooth working relationship between them, but if otherwise, the movie is a bad one of the working relationships, teamwork and the growth of the company. Legitimate power only works when their authority is acknowledged, and their positions are accepted by the followers (majorities).

2. Coercive Power:

Another basis of power we are considering is Coercive power. It uses the threat of force to gain compliance and obedience from the followers. The main idea behind this is getting people to do things irrespective of their opinions. The main goal is compliance. This idea is power-based. In some terms, it is regarded as Punishment power because it involves force, threat, or punishment to attain its goal.

In the long run, coercive power will make a leader lose respect and loyalty from his followers. Such a leader will be leading with fear no matter how good his intentions are. The working environment becomes very hostile and hot for workers and followers. Coercive power is needed at some point during hard times for the organization, but the bad thing is you can’t build credibility with coercive power. People will see such a leader as a bully and power-drunk.

It reduces the working ability in people and also their self-esteem. As a leader, you can punish a worker or a follower for misconduct or indiscipline, but when you employ the major tools of coercive power, which are threats and punishment, people will lose interest.

3. Reward Power: 

This power is based on the leader’s ability to provide rewards to motivate their followers. It is a reward for someone’s ability to comply with the organization’s rules and regulations and achieve something meaningful through that. In this type of power, the leader can give out rewards (Tangible or psychological). Tangible rewards could include promotion, office space, time off from work, a hike in salaries, and incentives. Psychological rewards could include help to such individuals, praise, recommendations, and recognition.

This kind of power helps to improve team spirit and productivity. Unlike the aforementioned bases of power, reward power increases the chances of likeness for the leader among the followers, thereby gaining respect, compliance, and obedience when he gives orders. This is a practicable example we are all familiar with. If people know that you will reward them for doing something, there is a high probability that they will do it effectively.

The issue with this basis of power is that when the rewards don’t have much value in the followers’ sight, unlike before, the power weakens. And also, you don’t get to promote people every time or increase their salaries to balance the company’s financial state or organization.

4. Informational Power:

 This is a short-term power that doesn’t necessarily build influence or credibility. It involves having control over vital information that others need or want. In this modern age, we are at right now where information is vital can place the one who has it in a position of power.

Information can be used as a weapon to manipulate, extort, share or attain some more important positions. You can also help others with it by providing them with the necessary information that they need.

BASES OF POWER

PERSONAL POWER SOURCES OF BASES OF POWER

1. Referent Power: 

Referent power has been over the years the best basis of power that a leader should adopt because it’s all about the quality of the relationship developed with others and how the relationship is built. This type of power results from a person’s perceived attractiveness, worthiness, and right to others’ respect.

It comes from people liking and respecting a particular person due to some traits. This is very common with celebrities. They have referent power. That is why they can influence people to buy some things or become influencers for some products or organizations. In an organization where the leader has referent power, his presence makes everyone feel good, obedient, and reliant.

Although, referent power can be easily abused because, in most cases, you don’t do anything to earn it. Someone likable by everyone may lack integrity and loyalty. Someone who does nothing to earn the likeness from people can do anything when he gets the power. He might use the position for personal advantages. Using referent power singularly by a leader is not a good strategy for respect and longevity. When combined with expert power, it makes the leader very admirable and becomes a role model.

2. Expert Power: 

This type of power uses knowledge and skills to understand every situation at hand, suggest viable solutions, and make solid judgments to gain people’s respect and trust. One of the best ways to build and maintain expert power and improve your leadership skills is by showing convenience, good decision-making, rational thinking, and solution-providing contents.

Someone’s professional knowledge and competence give him or her expert power. A leader’s credibility increases when others can notice and trust his judgments and decisions. Building expert power is an effective foundation for a good leader.

The power comes directly from attained knowledge, skills, and years of experience. He or she won’t look like a novice or a half-baked leader who is directing the followers. The people will feel their expertise and will regard the authority when they make decisions. The great thing about this kind of power is that nobody can take it away from you because it is the knowledge that you have. To remain an expert, continuous learning and improvement will help you to keep your status and influence.

               In conclusion, understanding these bases of power will help you understand the dynamics of power as a leader. You can choose to function as a partner when working with followers, a coach, or a boss.

What is psychological contract

What is psychological contract

              Psychological contract might not be a familiar term, but it is what a layman understands. What is psychological contract? Psychological contract, in simple terms, refers to the relationship between an employer and its employees with an unwritten set of expectations, mutual beliefs, perceptions between them. A legal contract signed by both the employer and the employees offers a limited understanding of their relationship with the workers reading and agreeing to terms with little or no contribution. In this case, a psychological contract is more essential.

This contract’s basic goal is to describe and analyze the relationship between employers and workers, and it also influences how they behave every day. We can also say psychological contract sets the dynamics for the relationship and defines the work’s detailed practicality.

WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

               Psychological contract and normal virtual employment define the employer-employee relationship, but psychological contract expresses the relationship best, but it is not tangible as the normal employment contract. Scholar, Denise Rousseau in his article in 1989, explained the concept of the psychological contract includes informal arrangements, mutual beliefs, common grounds, and perceptive relationships between the two involved parties. It might also refer to individual expectations, beliefs, ambitions, and obligations, as perceived by the employer and the employee.

The normal contract of employment signed by the employee offers a limited reality of the working relationship. Unlike a psychological contract, an employment contract is a legal contract usually written and signed to form an employment agreement. A psychological contract is a practicable way of establishing a strong working relationship because it describes how both parties understand the relationship they share, their individual views on their commitments, and what they should expect in return.

               A psychological contract is rather defined as a philosophy, not a formula or plan characterized by showing good qualities like respect, compassion, objectivity, and trust. They are formed by beliefs and may show up in other relationship areas aside from the employer-employee relationship. A scholar once described the psychological contract as the process whereby the employer and the employee or a prospective employee develop and refine their mental maps about one another.

This process starts before the employment and also develops during the employment process. When one writes for a job opportunity, the process starts from there till the prospective employee is called for an interview and continues when the job is offered throughout the Job.

What Psychological contract covers

               Unlike a normal contract of employment where terms and conditions are listed and you see what to expect, Dos and Don’ts, etc., a psychological contract does not have a definite list of expectations. Instead, scholars have focused on certain aspects that explore the duration, stability, and quality of the relationship. The following aspects may be covered by psychological contracts to show how they interact and the employment relationship.

– Career Prospects

– Manager’s Support

– Preferential Treatment and benefits

– Job security

WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

On the contrary, it is not easy in a very large organization to form a psychological contract because not a single person is identified as their employer. Still, they are also affected by decisions that the senior board members make. The employees might not be aware of the reason behind some decisions or who is making such decisions. Still, since it’s a general thing, it affects everybody irrespective of your relationship with your head of department. Similarly, such organizations still carry out surveys to see how the employees have been fairing, so it is safe to say that psychological contract still exists there.

LEADERSHIP TRANSPARENCY IN PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

               In psychological contracts, the importance of leadership transparency cannot be overemphasized because it is a big factor in this system. Achieving a successful and healthy psychological contract will not be possible if the leader is not open enough. A psychological contract is an open relationship, but when a leader chooses to operate secretly because of his work ethics or to have something to hide, he cannot achieve a healthy working psychological contract. Lack of transparency exists due to leadership negligence, bad leadership skill when the leader is a dictator, fear, or insecurity. The lack of leadership transparency results from one or a combination of the following reasons:

– An assumption on the part of the leader that the employees already know things. This often happens when the economic stability of an organization is questioned, probably due to low sale or revenue generated for the month, a leader might withhold the salaries or slash the worker’s salaries, believing that they should know that the company has not been what it uses to be over some months.

– Bossy leaders: Some leaders do not even consider transparency as an important virtue. They are called thoughtless leaders because to move your company forward. It is in the hands of both the employer and the employees. Some leaders even believe that the employees have no right to know whatever is up with the company since they are just employees.

– A policy of secrecy: Some companies have the habit of hiding things for one reason or the other.

When the leadership is not transparent enough, the employees have no reason to trust the employer. We are all humans, and we tend to trust people based on relationships, and as discussed earlier, trust is the foundation of a psychological contract. Secrecy on the part of the leader opens doors for employees to create their ideas which may tend against inaccurate information. Transparency facilitates openness and loyalty between employers and employees. It also gives employees a reliable fact about the situation on the ground.

WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT IN AN ORGANISATION

               The significance of psychological contracts in an organization setting helps and facilitates a good working relationship between employers and employees. When the employees see that the effort they put into the company’s advancement is matched by the backings they receive from the employer, this will foster work efficiency and improve productivity.

– It improves work commitment: A good and healthy psychological contract helps to improve commitment among employees. For instance, when a worker performs excellently well among colleagues and demonstrates a flair for more extra roles and leadership roles in the future, and the leadership does not overlook this, it will boost the workers’ commitment.

– It improves productivity: We as humans tend to perform well in a good working environment, unlike working in a hostile environment where the leader is a dictator. People tend to work just for working sake without putting it to heart. A higher level of commitment is reached with a healthy psychological contract.

– It increases trust levels: Psychological contract is based on trust, and trust can be built and marred. A sense of fairness and trust on the part of the employees towards employers helps build trust levels.

Management and goal assessment: 

– When the employers and employees maintain a good and healthy psychological contract, it helps in the company’s management and goal assessment.

– It facilitates development and expansion: When the employers can trust the employees to an extent and vice versa, development and expansion will not be an issue. Trust issues come when issues related to money and promises come into play, but if this is not an issue between parties, development and expansion will not be a forced thing. It will come naturally.

– New business and organizational structure: As the company begins to expand and grow, new ideas and structures are needed, trusted, and excellent employees can be called upon to share their views and new company strategy

– For the company’s advancement: With all the signs listed above, the result is moving the company or organization to a greater height. Any leader who has the company’s interest in his heart and chooses the company’s growth as a priority will maintain a good and healthy psychological contract.

Employers need to understand that:

  1. Maintaining 100% trust within the working environment is in the company’s best interest as a whole. Preventing breaches of contract is better than trying to salvage it when it is almost gone. Trust is key to a long and lasting working relationship.
  2. Employers should employ negotiation where breaches are inevitable. It may be better to spend time on negotiation rather than defending what is not. Generally, humans honor transparency. Even in the worst cases, transparency and negotiation can help solve some issues.

PEOPLE MANAGEMENT AND THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

               A psychological contract is the foundation of a good working environment, and leadership needs a successful people management skill. A leader must understand that people are different and must not relate to employees in the same way. We have introverts and extroverts. Being outspoken doesn’t make a person better and doesn’t make the person less of a professional. There should be checks and balances on how to relate with everybody in a working environment. These important areas include communication skills, learning and career development, management style, prospective management traits, management expectations, working attitude, and so on.

Are leaders born or made?

Are leaders born or made?

               Whether leaders are born or made has been a word for debate and argument over the years. As long as this question has lasted, no definite answer has been provided. There have been examples of historical figures that came naturally to leadership and also, there have been examples of leaders who built their leadership skills with experience and tenacity. Many schools of thought believe that just like people are naturally talented in arts, music, and other talent-related gifts, people can be born with this leadership skill. So, to answer the question is simple – leaders can be born and made.

               Are leaders born or made? To understand the concept of leadership, both the in-birth aspect (born leaders – genetic components) and the building aspect (made leaders – experience and environmental influences) must be considered. This question can go on for many years to come, with people still debating over it. We must examine the leadership concept from both sides of the argument (are leaders born or made?).

Many people believe that if you gather about 20 young children of the same age to play together in a place, it is a high possibility that a leader will emerge among them in no time. It might not necessarily be for leading them, but the leader naturally emerges in making decisions, choosing allies, and so on other leadership decisions.

               When thinking about excellent leaders, whether present or historical, it is possible to ask how they became notable leaders. That is where the question comes in again if they were born with the leadership qualities that they possess or they were made. Thomas Carlyle, in his book, “The Great Man Theory,” said those leadership traits are intrinsic, which means that great leaders are born and show up when faced with challenges.

However, leadership has been taught as well. Many organizations invest time and money to help workers develop good leadership skills. We see these things every day. Some people possess certain leadership characters that are just natural for them. Examples include charisma, bringing the best out of others, flowing with people irrespective of attachments, motivating people, inspiring people, and lots more. In cases like this, one can easily recognize that such people are naturally inclined and gifted with leadership skills.

LEADERS ARE BORN, NOT MADE

               At some point in our lives, we have acknowledged and have appreciated some born leaders instead of defending one perspective to suit our needs. They are not far from been found. They possess great charisma and noticeable presence (not by appearance but words of wisdom) combined with great decision-making skills, which make them stand out. We have all had excellent class captains, group leaders, and team leaders who display excellent leadership skills at a very young age. These are born leaders. Leaders are born and not made; we need to examine genetics’s role in attaining leadership skills.

               Over the past few years, studies and researches have been carried out to show if leadership traits are genetic or hereditary. One of these famous studies is the twin studies. This study involves twins of the same genetical composition and is examined. The twin study assessment helps to show that leadership traits can be right from birth. Identical twins or monozygotic twins are the best for this kind of study because they share 100% of their genetic material, unlike fraternal twins or dizygotic twins, who only share 50%of their genetic material. This test or study is carried out under two conditions: genetic or behavioral differences and environmental influences on their leadership skills.

Results from this study show that leadership to a certain level or degree is genetic. This study has further expatiated with each of the twins put in a very distinct and different environment. The study still shows that the differences were not much. Historically, we can see examples of twins who have demonstrated good leadership skills. Notable examples include NASA astronauts Mark and Scott Kelly; Julian and Joaquin Castro, who display their leadership qualities at different services.

               Undisputable pieces of evidence have further shown that leaders are born and not made. This leads us to the trait theory. The trait theory is built on the opinion that leaders are born and not made, making leadership qualities in-born and not something that can be learned or taught. Under this, scholars have outlined some major characteristics that determine a good leader. These characteristics include physiological attributes, demographical factors, and intelligence level.

Physiological attributes comprise seeable factors such as appearance, height, dress sense, and lots more.

Demographical factors comprise the educational level and background, age, family records, and background.

Intelligence level – this comprises the person’s ability in question, which includes decision making, charisma, content loaded, knowledge, etc.

EXAMPLES OF BORN LEADERS

               There are many definitions of leadership, but there is generally acceptable and cuts across all the initial definitions. We all know leadership to be a process through which a person influences and motivates others to accomplish a team goal. We will be looking at some born leaders, both present and historical. In our quest to finding out if leaders are born or made, we have some examples of born leaders below:

1. Mahatma Gandhi

ARE LEADERS BORN OR MADE?

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi, was born on the 2nd of October 1869. He was a renowned Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist, and political ethicist. He became an important part of India’s independence story by employing nonviolent resistance and protest by leading them to freedom in 1947. He was notably known for his quotes, motivational speeches, resilience, and leading by example.

2. Abraham Lincoln

ARE LEADERS BORN OR MADE?

Abraham Lincoln was the 16th American president was formally worked as a statesman and a lawyer. Lincoln led the country through the most challenging moment in the nation’s history and preventing them from breaking into smaller parts. He used his leadership skill to keep the people together and ended slavery by signing the emancipation proclamation.

3. George Washington

ARE LEADERS BORN OR MADE?

George Washington, also known as the United States of America’s founding father, was an American political leader, military general, statesman, and the first president of the United States. He led the American revolution that won the war of independence and presided at a constitutional convention in 1787 which brought about a federal government and the U.S. constitution.

4. Nelson Mandela

ARE LEADERS BORN OR MADE?

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African political leader who led the anti-apartheid revolutionary. He served as president from 1994 to 1999. He served a long prison sentence due to his fight against racism and apathy. This encouraged Mandela the more with his goal of uniting the country. He was the first black head of states in the country.

               This is to mention a few. Many other born leaders (active and historical) have made waves in their area of influence.

Notable Mentions: Adolf Hitler, Mao Zedong, Fidel Castro, Winston Churchill, ZurielOduwale (Born in July 2002, and has been receiving international recognition since the age of 8. She has interviewed about 30 different presidents and head of states).

               With the few examples above, we can prove to an extent if true leaders are born or made.

ARE LEADERS BORN OR MADE?

DEVELOPING GOOD LEADERSHIP TRAITS

               Are leaders born or made? Having said all above, born leadership skill is not enough, it has to be worked upon. Not born with any of the likable or most common leadership skills doesn’t mean that you cannot make a good leader. For instance, introverts who find it hard to mix with people are contrary to the aforementioned leadership skill of charisma and presence, they can make a good leader if they can learn and put into action things they have learned.

How then do you develop leadership traits?

– Assess yourself: Self-evaluation, self-reflection and self-assessment are the most important step in the initial stage of finding yourself. This is you telling yourself the truth and finding out more hidden things about yourself. An effective leader must be able to find out what are his or her strengths and weaknesses. This will help the person to understand what are the things he or she is good with and things that are difficult for him.

As we have said, leaders can be born, it doesn’t automatically make them a perfect person, they only have more visible strength, but they have a weakness. When assessing yourself gives you an insight into what you need to improve upon and how to go about it.

– Show empathy: To be an effective leader, you must be able to feel what the followers are feeling. You must put yourself in their shoes and experience the act of followership. What makes an effective leader is an awareness and understanding of what is going on at every point.

– Build yourself: As it has been rightly said above, in-built leadership skill is not enough. A leader that depends only on his natural ability will not go far. We now have leadership courses in the universities today, they are there to help improve.

– Join the Black Sheep Community: The Black Sheep community helps to make future thought leaders. We are on a mission to help people become great leaders with experts in various fields as your coach.

Technology and empathy – Influence Of Technology On Human Empathic Behaviour

Technology and empathy – Influence Of Technology On Human Empathic Behaviour

               

There are two important aspects of this article, which are technology and empathy. What do you understand by technology and empathy? Technology is a general term for the processes by which human beings customize tools and machines to increase their control and understanding of the material environment (i.e., developing a more advanced tool from the pre-existing ones, the mobile phone evolution).

It is very interesting to note that most people think of technology only in terms of tangible products; computers and software, aircraft, pesticides, water-treatment plants, birth-control pills, and microwave ovens, to mention a few. There are other factors such as engineering know-how, manufacturing expertise, various technical skills and so on which are equally important.

               Empathy can be defined as the human ability to put oneself in another’s place to understand better what others feel or think. When discussing technology, empathy shouldn’t be considered. Still, through the evolvement of technology to the productions of mobile agents who interact and work on behalf of their users, the word empathy came into the scene. Empathy is a core part of human reasoning and communication. With the rise in technology leading to the development of communication tools, it has become more crucial and important in the human relationship with technology.

               Some time ago, I was opportune to be in a technology seminar tagged “Artificial Intelligence and its Ethics.” During this seminar, the speakers dwelt much on technology and empathy. How has technology affected the way of doing things and what is its result? For instance, with the emergence of new technologies in artificial intelligence, augmented reality, virtual reality, and so on, empathy and ethics come into question because these gadgets don’t create themselves. They are products of humans and they relay whatever is programmed in them (and even the best of them that learn from the regular happenings and occurrences still learn from humans).

Relationship Between Technology And Empathy

               There are lots of questions we ought to ask ourselves when considering a subject like this. Initially, technology doesn’t deal with human empathy; it is developed to assist humans in various activities. But over the years, the more technology advances, the more the empathic relationship. How technology affects human empathy depends on your view and opinion; you cannot just say technology has reduced human empathy just because that’s the way you view it, or that’s the way it affects you. Looking from both the negative and the positive sides of technology to empathy, there are important points to behold. Technology is learned and discovered daily, so the empathic relationship also changes as we learn new and advance in technology evolution.

Technology and empathy

               Technology and empathy will become a vital discussion in the future because as mobile agents’ development comes around, it is surely going to affect human empathy. So many people have argued that empathy is not a keynote for discussion when talking about technology so far. The technological means does its job well and doesn’t cause any harm. There are further discussions about this and several questions must be asked. What was the state of interpersonal relationships between human beings before technological innovations such as social media came in place? How has it improved communication and relationships? How has it improved heart-to-heart discussion and human expression of the truth?

               The relationship between technology and empathy wouldn’t have existed if there were no human technological aids. As said before, technology is not created to end human beings’ existence, but the wrong use of it might spell an end to it. For instance, if a bad person creates a bot (robot) to perform his or her bad atrocities but presents it in a good way or if it’s been hacked by outside to do a different task rather than its initial programmed task.

Influence Of Technology On Human Empathic Behaviour

               So much has been said about the relationship between technology and empathy, now we are checking what has been the influence over the years of technology on empathy. If there is a relationship between the two, no matter how small it might be, we cannot talk about influence. Because of the rise in social media use, there has been a rise in research investigating the influence of social media use on adolescent’s psychological development.

As one of the arms of technology, social media has been at the most important and prioritized daily adventure by the old and young. There have been many positives about it, including improvement in self-esteem, social competence, friendship closeness, digital marketing, talent showcase, and assistance or help online.

               There have also been negative reports on how social media has affected human empathy, which is the inappropriate use of social media, which includes social bully, exposure to pornographic content to underage groups, the easy spread of fake news and information, and an increase in the number of internet scammers.

Reports have shown that social media gave rise to an increase in internet fraudsters and scammers. Empathy leads us to experience and understands what other people are feeling, but in a world where you can keep yourself busy online without having to relate with peers. It has been said that children who grow alone without having to relate with peers or people find it hard to relate with people later in their lives.

Technology and empathy

               From this perspective, it is safe to say that empathy is reduced among people. The goal of empathy is “interrelationship,” but with the rise in technological appliances where people can be alone without feeling the need of anybody. A survey was carried out among some American college students. The result shows that with the increase in the use of the internet, especially social media, empathy among these students is on a decline.

There are some arguments for why technology use, especially social media, has negatively affected human empathy. One of these arguments is that, even though social media has given us the opportunity to make new friends and facilitate connections online, it doesn’t enhance communication and social skills during offline meetings.

               Another argument that is similar to the first one is that it is hard to tell how the person at the other end of the chat is feeling. You can’t tell what their body language is or their facial expressions, and you are limited to what the chat says. This means that a person might pretend while online and easily get away with it. Also, people have argued that technology has reduced empathy through social media because anybody can claim to be anything online.

Why Technology Requires Empathy

               Engineers in various fields of technology do not undermine the experience of one important figure, which is the “End User.” Whenever there is an innovation, the engineers have the end user’s experience as their main priority. The end-user is the person who relies on technology to solve some critical problems and ease their workload. So, the users’ experience will prompt the engineers or the developers to improve on their subsequent editions of the device.

How can this be achieved? A thorough understanding of human behavior plays an important role in creating a user-friendly application or device. This is where empathy is needed in technology innovations. The developers and engineers are not creating for animals. Their sole goal is to assist humans in reducing their workload and getting jobs done easily.

               This cannot be done without putting human feelings and relationships into consideration. Even in the creation of games, one of the things that makes it very interesting for the end-users is getting themselves immersed in the game (i.e., they can relate to the gaming experience). Since we know that empathy is the ability to understand and share feelings, in technological creations, empathy is needed to balance the act of being able to think and feel like an end-user. What is the gain when one creates assistance and people find it so hard to use or relate with it? So, the developer or engineer must use empathy to understand the behavior of the end-users.

               Moreover, it is known that people who take a very logical approach to understanding an end user’s perspective are at risk of over-analyzing the situation on the ground and getting disconnected at the end. When attached and engrosses in emotions over a situation, trying to understand what the end-user might be feeling might result in sympathy.

Sympathy brings about an unproductive cycle of criticism. It won’t lead to any solution because sympathy only leads to feeling (sorry) for the potential end-users of the technology to implement rather than feeling with them. When the concept of empathy is applied to technological implementations, it leads to a stronger end-to-end process. It provides viable solutions to the problem of why the technology innovation in question was thought about.

               Finally, the relationship between technology and empathy has come a long way to what it is presently, right from its (empathy) application in the development and implementation of the technological appliances down to how it influences the technology’s end-users.

Five Positive Impacts of Technology

Five Positive Impacts of Technology

Technology has been a great gift from humans to humans. Today we cannot imagine our lives without it to the extent that we depend on it for our daily lives. In this article, we will remind you about the greatest positive impacts of technology that has been bestowed upon us by the Gods of Technology.

Here are some positive impacts of technology.

⦁ A Way to Promote Business

Technology has made it easy to reach out to people, making marketing more effective and less costly. Before social media had taken over the world, technology brands and organizations could only market their products and services through magazines and newspapers. Then came the era of television, where brands were marketed through costly television ads.

However, when social media became popular, the marketing cost dropped, and the potential reach increased. Internet marketing reached out to masses of people, which was not possible before. The biggest advantage came to small businesses, which did not have the budget to use television and radio as a marketing facility, but who could now market themselves on social media at a lower cost.

Social media has not only allowed businesses to cut their costs but has made audiences more accessible. Businesses can now find their target audience, identify their needs and cater to them personally. Businesses also benefit from social media’s analytical capabilities, which help them evaluate their business and become more responsive in the future. Analytics help them make adjustments in their marketing strategies and gives them a better overview of their campaigns.

Five Positive Impacts of Technology

⦁ Online Courses Available

It’s the 21st century, but still, many people are unable to attend college due to the large financial commitment they necessitate. However, unlike in the past, technology has made access to education, concise courses very easy. People who cannot attend college physically because of their jobs can enroll themselves in online courses and take them from the comfort of home. They can choose from a variety of courses and training to contribute to their careers. Its also due to positive impacts of technology.

For professionals and students who enjoy seminars but cannot do so because of travel issues, web seminars are present on the internet that they can access at very affordable costs. They can schedule their seminars and attend them virtually. They even get their certifications delivered to their homes.

This is also an opportunity for schools that want to educate their students through seminars but cannot accommodate them during school hours. Teachers can stream live seminars in the classroom, and the students can learn and enjoy collaborating in the seminars.

Even though online courses, training, and seminars were common before, the pandemic has led to an increase in these online education ways. The pandemic has definitely reminded us of the positive impact of technology!

⦁ Easy Access to Research

Five Positive Impacts of Technology

Research has definitely become easier thanks to the internet. Students can access journals online. They save their trips to the library and no longer need to spend hours searching for the right material. The right article is now just a click away. You do not have to go through dozens of books to carry out your research; you can type what you need and immediately get various options to cater to your research topic.

Research through the internet saves time and money that you previously had to spend on buying books and makes finding resources simpler.

⦁ Transportation

Five Positive Impacts of Technology

Positive impacts of technology has not only made it easier to travel but made travel much more accessible. Think about the past when it took months of travel on the sea when one had to go from one county to another. Now, airplanes have cut this time down dramatically. You can fly across the world, and it would just take you hours to do so.

Airports are nearer too so traveling to them is also no hindrance. Time is money, as they say, and technology has made traveling through a time fast. We have more time on our hands, which allows us to work, spend it with our loved ones, or do the things we love.

We talked about traveling to different countries and big cities, but have you ever appreciated the everyday transport available to you? Bullet trains travel at least six times faster than traditional trains. They give you more time and cut downtime spent traveling. Some years ago, you wouldn’t have thought about working in one corner of the city and living in the other, but the bullet trains are a gift from technology, offering safe and efficient travel.

⦁ Household Technology

Five Positive Impacts of Technology

How Positive Impacts of Technology changed life style? Imagine doing your laundry with your hands, and imagine washing the dishes after every meal. Can you imagine your life without the dishwasher and the washing machine? You can’t. Now think about all the other home appliances that you use daily. The television, blender, refrigerator, microwave, electric heater and what not! Technology has advanced so quickly that it allows people to control home appliances from their smartphones. Appliances like refrigerators can be connected to smartphones and allow the user to order food online or go through recipes.

Life without household appliances is unimaginable, with life getting tougher and faster with each day. Home appliances not only help us clean up and do our chores, but they let us do our chores faster, so we have more time on our hands for our families and ourselves.

Now people do not spend hours washing clothes or cleaning dishes; they want it all to be done in minutes, and these home appliances allow you to do it. Home appliances give us a hassle-free life. What would we have done without the positive impact of technology making our everyday life simpler?

There is no doubt that positive impacts of technology has made our life simpler and easy, but too much technology can cause burnout. It would help if you learned to keep a balance in your life. If you’re making too much use of technology, then stop and recharge by connecting to nature. Living in the concrete world for too long can be unhealthy, so take a break once in a while and recharge by staying away from technology!

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Socratic method of teaching

Socratic method of teaching


Why we need Socratic method of teaching? Many people want to question the established order while they were in class but couldn’t, thanks to several factors starting from fear to shyness. The new dynamism within the world has shown to us that if the youngsters and teenagers are allowed to process their thoughts and critically digest every info fed to them in school, it’ll make them explore more and provide a magnificent and wonderful solution to virtually all the challenges bedeviling the world.


Nowadays, we acquire facts, figures, data, and knowledge but not important knowledge. Knowledge is lost somewhere in the modern-day curriculum designed for college kids. We want our youngsters to question this information. We’d like them to explore, invent and experiment a day. We want to support our youngsters once they question science, culture, and society.


This thought escorted me back to the Socratic Method. It facilitated the scholars to become thinkers, experimenters, philosophers, artists, and creators. New theories, laws, and principles were born of this world’s view and questioning existing thought patterns. In reality, this practice enabled them to excel in their professions, reminding us of names such as Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, and Archimedes.


Besides, they focused on encouraging this strategy in their ways of life as they presumed that knowledge enriches society’s minds and hearts. It is the light that takes away all fears and darkness. Also, they believed in strength and power, which may only be achieved by submitting willfully to knowledge, teaching, and learning.


EXPLORE THE MAGIC OF LEARNING THROUGH QUESTIONING

SOCRATIC METHOD OF TEACHING


When another person asks us questions, something very mystical occurs, especially when he takes time to really listen to our answers. Just like the proverbial key to a chest crammed with incredible riches, questions somehow unlock our brains. They assist us in inventing new ideas, see a problem from different perspectives, and find out solutions we never knew that we knew! Because such knowledge comes from within us, not from the surface world, it’s truly “ours.” By this, I mean it quickly becomes a part of our conscious knowledge; it’s not something that we’ve to “stuff in” to our brains or cram for to find out.

This approach to learning and problem-solving has become referred to as the “Socratic Method.” First mentioned by Plato within the Socratic Dialogues around the 4th century, the tactic consists at the bottom of a conversation between two people: the Questioner/Listener and therefore the Speaker. The Greeks used the Socratic Method to explore philosophical questions revolving around ethics and morals. In modern times, many law schools have adopted the style as a means of training student lawyers.


ELEMENTS OF SOCRATIC METHOD OF TEACHING

SOCRATIC METHOD OF TEACHING
  • There are basically four key elements within the Socratic method of teaching, as listed below.
  • Stimulate organized thinking through probing questions.
  • Keep the conversation focused on self-understanding resulting in logical conclusions.
  • Always be intellectually fair with the person questioned.
  • Periodically summarize what has been concluded and its implications.
  • It should be noteworthy that the Socratic teaching method is skeptical, and questions flip answers and beliefs.


There Is Never One Answer To Any Question

Socrates and, therefore, the present-day teachers, who use his method, use a conversational approach in teaching students. They plan to prolong the reasoning and proper answer from students. They are doing not lecture the scholars but interact through deft questioning. This may evoke critical thinking from the scholars and supply several solutions to an equivalent problem at every point in time. The system is empirical and inductive, practical yet supported the life experience of all people. Socrates seeks to prolong the scholar to know their beliefs’ implications by deductive thinking comprehending its logical consequences.


Does SOCRATIC METHOD OF TEACHING It Work For All Situations?

There is just no universal solution that works under different scenarios. Change requires a replacement set of ideas and analysis. In law, the judge is given discretion supported by varying circumstances. The Socratic Method isn’t a group of laws that we follow blindly, but reasoning resulting in focused analysis and, therefore, the best response to questions.


WHY BOTHER WITH THISSOCRATIC METHOD OF TEACHING?

Lecturing is boring for both the trainer and, therefore, the listener. A professor drops an average of 150 words every minute, while the listeners’ note-taking is averagely 25 words per minute. We, the listener, stray during a flood of data and quit listening because we cannot continue. Question and analysis are interactive, resulting in mutually satisfying conclusions.

The key is Feedback. Once we answer questions with thoughtful answers, we invoke our basic instinct – curiosity. Back-and-forth feedback monitors growing personal comprehension. It results in an improvement in self-esteem. Remember – questions are specific and logical and need a united effort between our left and right hemispheres. Lecturing may be a reversion to childhood when your parents and teachers told you ways and what to think. The Socratic method of teaching may be a joint-venture between adults.


RULES GUIDING THE UTILIZATION OF SOCRATIC METHOD OF TEACHING


Make the questions intriguing and mentally arousing to form the scholars curious about the training exercise.
Avoid being confrontational with the scholars and make it live to make the scholars learn maximally.
Questions must lead someplace. There must be incremental steps to reasonable conclusions and implications. It would help if you began from known to unknown.


Look for logical steps in thinking, not lockstep answers.
The goal is personal understanding and being the hospitable change of opinion through personal growth by reasoning.
Make the scholar see the illogic areas of their own thinking, correct it, and move forward to raised ideas.
We don’t want to supply direct clues to the right answer because the system may be a matter of learning to think skeptically and find our own thanks to reasonable solutions.


WHY WE MUST EMBRACE THE SOCRATIC METHOD OF TEACHING

Today’s students are going to be the leaders of tomorrow, which is why it’s so important that they develop the critical thinking necessary for arriving at multiple answers/solutions for the complex problems, challenges, or situations that face our ever-changing world. This will only occur if they accept that functioning within the investigative process is not enough. New concepts and technologies will continue to emerge constantly to deal with world problems.


A college education can do far more than provide a stable lifestyle. It can expand a person’s thinking, which may expand that individual’s worldview. Armed with an expanded worldview, that individual can positively influence the lives of those that he/she meets.


To possess students to explore beyond the course material, they need to be carefully pushed without intimidation. This is often achieved by teaching them that having the “correct” answer isn’t always the foremost important thing. Instead of asking the proper questions and seeking the answers to those questions is typically how new and more innovative answers/solutions for today’s more complex issues are received. Armed with this contextual change in educational philosophy, students begin to dig deeper because their curiosity is inspired and awakened.

There becomes a greater interest within the coursework by students, a willingness to require more responsibilities when it comes time for group projects, and openness and fearlessness when sharing new and sometimes radical ideas. Students learn how to be imaginative in their thoughts, encouraged by the Socratic Method; also respect the thinking of others by developing their natural curiosity for learning and listening (which is how we receive the knowledge of the planet around us).


QUESTION TYPES APPLIED BY SOCRATIC METHOD OF TEACHING

Exploring Other Opinions And Other Perceptions

It comes from their own context and experience when learners make an argument. Attacking the stance can bring to light other points of view.

• What if someone approached things this way? Wouldn’t that even be reasonable?
• What would an individual with a special perspective say in response?• What if you compare your response to a specialist opinion?

Exploring The Possible Consequences

What does the student’s argument imply? What is going to the top result be?
• What happens after that?
• If one assumes that what’s likely to follow?
• How does your response affect others?
• Does this alteration anything that you learned earlier?


Responding To Questions With More Questions

Go back to face one and place the question back in their hands.
• Why does one thing I even have asked this?
• What’s my point in asking these things?


Using Inquiries To Clarify


These questions help students probe deeper into the subject.
• What causes you to think that way?
• What does one mean?
• How could you rephrase your response?
• Could you clarify with an example?


Using Inquiries To Uproot Assumptions

These questions encourage students to look at their own beliefs.
• What does your argument assume?
• are you able to prove that assumption?
• So, would you further disagree about other speakers’ opinions?


Probing For Evidence And Reason


Do not simply accept a student’s answer. Make them ponder during a critical way and find supportive evidence for his or her arguments.
• are you able to use an example to explain it to the class further?
• How can we all know that your assumptions are reasonable?
• Might others attempt to refute your claim? How?
• Are your explanations sound? Would the delay during a court of law?


CONCLUSION

How much effective is SOCRATIC METHOD OF TEACHING?
The world is such during a dynamic state being faced with myriads of challenges here and there, subsequent neatest thing we could do for ourselves and our youngsters is to equip them with all the required tools they have to navigate this world and excel. For all the potentials to be fully unlocked, we must arouse in them the facility of critical thinking as thought by the Socrates Method of teaching.

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