The principle of Premack arises in the context of operatic conditioning. And it supports the existence of a psychological dimension that is determining the repetition or disappearance of behavior. This measurement is the value that an individual contributes to a particular event generated by their interaction with the event.
This principle was one of the great tenets of operators in the mid-twentieth century. It broke the traditional definition of “reinforcement,” which had important implications in models of training and motivation studies.
Premack Principle: Definition and Origin
Between 1954 and 1959, the North American psychologist David Premack and his wife and collaborator Ann James Premack conducted various studies of the operant’s conditions. And analyzed the behavior of monkeys belonging to the genus Cebus.
The research was initially conducted at the Yerx Primate Biology Laboratory in Florida. At the University of Missouri, Columbia, at the University of California, and finally at the University of Pennsylvania.
Premack’s hypothesis was as follows. Any A response would back up any answer B.If and only if the probability of an A response appearing is greater than the probability of a B response. They wanted to prove that a different response could amplify a rare behavioral response. If the latter implied a greater preference over the former.
In other words, the Premack principle states that if there is behavior or activity of little interest, it is likely that such behavior does not spontaneously occur. However, immediately after that, there is an opportunity to perform another behavior or activity that is of interest. Thus the first (the one that is of little interest) will significantly increase the probability of repetition.
The principle of Premack Contribution to operant air conditioning
In Skinner’s operant conditioning, backers are stimuli that tend to increase the frequency of the behavior. Thus, the very definition of “reinforcing” was given by its influence on behavior, by which any incentive could amplify behavior whenever it acted. It is done that the effort itself was at the center of efforts to increase any behavior.
But, testing Premack’s hypothesis, Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning takes an important turn: by not functioning absolutely, the amplifiers work relatively.
The amplifier does not matter in itself; it is important how many possibilities of response the individual offers. In this sense, what determines the effect of an event is the value that the subject attributes to the event itself. For this theory, the central answers are that what increases the appearance of behavior is not so much “reinforcement” as a series of “reinforcing events.”
The theory of deprivation of the answer
Subsequently, other experiments and studies conducted in operatic conditioning have called into question the Premack principle.
Among them is the theory of deprivation of the answer. In a broad sense, this suggests that there are situations in which restricting access to an amplifying response does not increase the preference for an effective response, as it is. Increase motivation first, and therefore several behaviors associated with it. In short, this assumes that the less you can access behavior, the more motivation you generate.
Value according to this theory
According to Pereira, Caicedo, Gutierrez, and Sandoval (1994), given the importance that Premack’s principal attributes the motivation generated by supporting events. One of the central concepts in Premack’s principle is “value,” the definition of which can be summarized and defined as follows:
Organisms organize world events according to a hierarchy of values.
The value is measured by the probability that the body reacts to an irritant. In turn, the probability can be measured by the duration of interaction with the specified response. That is, the more time it takes to act, the greater the value it has to the individual.
If a more valuable event is presented immediately after another less valuable one, the latter’s behavior is enhanced. Similarly, the least valuable event and behavior that interferes with it acquire “instrumental” value.
If the opposite effect occurs (the lower-value event occurs immediately after the higher value), what happens is the punishment for instrumental behavior. This means that the probability of repeating the least meaningful behavior decreases.
Similarly, “value” is defined as a psychological dimension that individuals assign to events, such as assigned other properties (e.g., size, color, weight). In the same sense, the value is assigned according to a specific interaction that the individual sets with the event.
This psychological dimension determines the likelihood of the occurrence or disappearance of behavior, i.e., the effect of reinforcement or punishment. Thus, to make sure that behavior occurs or expires, it is important to analyze the value that the individual attributes to it.
The above implies an analysis of the individual’s current and previous interactions with an event that needs to be enhanced and the ability to generate other responses or events.
Experiment with pinball and sweets
To sum it all up, we described an experiment that David Premack and his collaborators conducted with children. In the first part, they were presented with two alternatives (which were called “answers”): eating candy or playing a pinball machine.
Thus, it was possible to determine which of these two behaviors was more likely to be repeated for each child (and with this, the level of preference was determined).
In the second part of the experiment, children were told that they could eat candy if they first played a pinball machine. Thus, “eating candy” was a reinforcement of the answer, and “playing with a pinball machine” was an effective response. The result of the experiment was that only children who preferred to “eat candy” were less likely to support their behavior or be less interested in “playing with a pinball machine.”
A person with an assertive personality has a Self-assured and self-conscious temperament. There is a great variety of temperaments and personalities, which exist in human behavioral psychology. Such a kind of self-assurance in temperament and character resultantly produces the best kind of leaders for a nation. However, imperfection does exist in human nature. No one can claim complete perfection or adoption of certain highly ranked behavior in communication.
How are you as a person? Do you feel like you’re a go-getter, willing to take risks, and don’t mind stepping up to the plate when necessary? Or do you prefer to be more of a cautious listener? Assertive personalities are viewed as the go-getters, while passive personalities are looked at as the more cautious ones. But what do we really know about assertive personalities? How are they different from other types of personalities? And how can they help us to better lead our teams?
To make mistakes is human, and thus, humans may possess some chunks of personality traits in either type of personality. One of the misconceptions regarding the adoption of an assertive personality is that a person is born confident and assertive. That is surely a myth, as the traits of the assertive personality can be adopted over some time through tremendous efforts. However, some of the traits of an assertive personality do exist since birth in a person. Historically and observingly, this type of disposition is quite helpful in communication and negotiation.
Historically prominent people such as Pablo Picasso, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Lyndon Johnson, and Indira Gandhi are all exemplary examples of assertive personalities in history. An assertive personality possesses a common set of chief characteristics that might vary from one person to another. But the major characteristics include:
Self-Assured, self-acquainted, self-conscious:
A person with an assertive personality knows their strengths and weaknesses. Their self-introspection strengthens their potential to cover up their weaknesses. They are never a victim of manipulation because of their awareness regarding themselves. Neither they are naïve enough to become a victim of someone’s boasting or buttering to take advantage of their strengths manipulatively. A person with an assertive personality has the caliber of gauging and scrutinizing themselves constantly. They spent a major chunk of their time on self-introspection.
The exploration and discoveries of self-interests make them more consistent and persistent in their pursued motives. They remain conscious of their conscience and never inhibit their intuitive calls from inside. He/she knows the inner click and can distinguish between right and wrong. Whereas, a person with a passive or aggressive personality hardly spares time for self-introspection. Those other personalities easily get distracted and messed up with their burning desires of pursuing aims and motives in life.
A person with an assertive personality knows well about the attainment of chasing dreams peacefully. Their self-acquainted nature makes them more inclined and determined when focusing on their dreams. For this reason, the self-introspected and self-confident stay calm and peaceful in pursuing their ambitions.
Assertive Personality holder as Effective communicators:
Assertive personality holders are effective communicators. The effectiveness of communication can be gauged from their eloquence of speech in communication. They never fall into unnecessary fights while arguing with a person. Their effectiveness can be gauged from the level of their utmost intelligence when pursuing a person in an argument. An aggressive person can become an easy victim of fights and disagreements.
Whereas, an assertive person maintains respect and boundaries when dealing with a personal grudge. It has been seen in aggressive people’s conversations that the parties fall into disagreements and fights over petty discussions. On the contrary, an assertive person has the intrinsic qualities of maintaining good relations besides arguing for personal rights. The relations of such a self-confident person grow rather than reach a breaking point.
It has been seen in aggressive and passive personalities’ communication levels, that the corresponding party is always disappointed with their favors. Whereas, an assertive person maintains their individuality after availing the benefits of relations and communication. People never remain disappointed in such self-confident personalities.
Respectful toward self-rights and other’s rights:
An assertive person is always just regarding other rights as well as his/her rights. They are well acquainted and familiarized with others’ rights. Besides this, their persuasion and efforts towards getting their rights are made peacefully. The self-rights are availed in a manner that none of the other’s rights are snatched. An assertive personality always avoids those shortcuts of getting their due share of rights done by a manipulative personality.
They accept and value others’ rights and shares. The negligence toward other rights is not given by them unconsciously. Likewise, an assertive personality makes efforts to assist and support a weaker person by pursuing his/her rights in an upright manner. Resultantly, people around a person with an assertive personality never keep a grudge or grievances against him/her. The dealings are done so well on their behalf, that the people are happily convinced to deliver the due right and share such a self-confident personality. The persuasion of their rights is never done aggressively by an asserter.
In a nutshell, an assertive personality has an upright attitude of convincing and pursuing their goals without offending anyone. Relationships of such people always have the quality of maintaining boundaries. A healthy relationship is one that sets boundaries of respect and space. Thus, a person with an assertive personality has the desired quality of maintaining boundaries with other people. Likewise, not only do they remain aware of/her rights, but they also /accept and validate others’ rights in an upright manner.
Their feelings and thoughts are so eloquently expressed that the correspondent is not offended easily. The individuality and self-respect of such people always remain intact while demanding their rights from others. Though a passive person equally or more likely tends to sacrifice his/her need for others, still the acceptance and self-esteem of the assertive personality holder are more attractive to the people. In the same way, such a confident person can gain prominence among people for their highly professional emotional response toward others. Thus, an assertive personality can maintain respect in dealings and relationships.
5 Characteristics of an Assertive Person
Being assertive is all about respecting yourself and others without trampling on their rights. Some of the characteristics of assertive people are:
Assertive people have a sense of self-confidence. They know their boundaries, However, people who struggle with assertiveness often permit others to make decisions for themselves. So, to test your self-confidence level, ask yourself whether you are taking part in a particular activity because you are genuinely interested or it’s because some of your peers are doing it.
2. Respect the views of others:
Assertive people are confident about their stand and as such, they don’t feel the need to insult others for airing their opinions. You may be pro-life; and yet, as an assertive person, you will still be able to share your views strongly and disagree with abortion activists without insulting the other side personally.
3. Ability to draw the limit:
It’s not always possible to be on cordial terms with others. You may have come across some people who are prone to abuse or are bitter in their outlook. And, when you meet such people, there some forms of tension will be created. An assertive person will know the perfect time when to say “it’s enough” according to the situation. In simple terms, assertive people can draw a clear line, but without creating conflict.
4. Good listener:
It is quite common for couples to fight and some of them hardly have the time to listen to each other. The end result is that both sides end up without being heard. It is important to remember that assertive traits include being a good listener; good eye contact and the ability to reflect on what has been said to grab the actual meaning of the exchange of words.
5. Emotionally independent:
An assertive person is also able to tolerate and accept rejection. They don’t do things for the sake of receiving approval from their peers or co-workers. They do it to satisfy their professional goals, beliefs, and convictions. Yes, it’s true that assertive people also would love acknowledgment from others, but even if they don’t get any; they never fall into the temptation to act against their principles.
When someone is born, he or she is born with the potential to be a leader. But the reality is, that most people never develop the necessary traits to take them to the next level. So, what can you do to successfully develop your assertive personality? First of all, you need to understand its meaning. Assertiveness is a characteristic of the personality that can be described as a combination of two other personality traits: self-confidence and self-assertion.
Assertive personality plays a key role in being successful in life. It is a part of a manager’s personality, but it is not the primary one. It is a kind of leadership that goes beyond leadership skills.
According to the philosopher, von Kisling, assertive personality is a character trait in which the person has an ability to control and manage his or her own emotions and feelings. It is an ability to assert one’s true identity and views.
Unconscious Bias: As more firms focus on diversity and inclusion, “unconscious bias” is becoming more common in the workplace. Company executives and decision-makers across industries are stepping up efforts to recognize prejudice in their firms’ hiring, recruiting, and management practices in order to foster a more inclusive workplace atmosphere.
As individuals, being able to recognize unconscious biases in yourself and others can help you make better decisions in both your professional and personal lives. But, it is not always straightforward to understand unconscious bias and its many types. In this article, you will get to know the basics of unconscious bias, including its types, effects, and solutions.
What is Unconscious Bias?
Also known as implicit biases, unconscious biases constantly affect your actions. Informed by your values, backgrounds, and experiences, these biases are crucial in helping your mind efficiently and quickly navigate the world around you. Unfortunately, however, these biases can often be informed by inaccurate and harmful stereotypes. As a result, people can be discriminated against, harming workplace equality, productivity, culture, and opportunity.
When you acquire a rapid opinion on a person or circumstance without being consciously aware of it, this is known as unconscious or implicit bias. Biases are formed in your brain due to our understanding of social situations, cultures, emotional reactions, attitudes, stereotypes, and other factors. You learn these things throughout your lives due to your media exposure and experiences.
When it comes to hiring, unconscious bias can dramatically sway your decision. While it’s crucial to use your experience to evaluate applications, it’s an issue when your assumptions, preferences, and expectations become too powerful.
Even if you interpret a bias positively in your mind, it can nevertheless lead to unfair favoritism. For example, it’s still an unconscious bias if you prefer an applicant who went to the same university as you equate it with intelligence. A more excellent education does not automatically imply that they are brighter than other contenders.
It isn’t easy to overcome your preconceptions when it comes to recruitment. During interviews, gut feelings and first impressions are extremely important. But on the other hand, unconscious bias must be avoided since it can lead to inaccurate, unfair judgments, overlooked talent, or, in the worst-case scenario, discrimination.
The beliefs are buried deep within your minds, and you are often unaware of their existence. Unlike conscious or explicit biases, unconscious biases are not prejudiced on purpose. Scientists have concluded that your minds are programmed to make assumptions and associations to help you digest information more quickly. Still, it doesn’t make them any less destructive to the people affected by them.
How Does Unconscious Bias Affect Your Actions?
Most of you might believe that you are unbiased and ethical. You think you are a good decision-maker, able to size up a venture deal or a job candidate objectively and reach a rational and fair conclusion in your organization’s best interest. However, over twenty years of research shows that most people fall regretfully short of their inflated self-perception.
Biases affect you and your decision-making processes in various ways. It affects your:
Perception: how you perceive reality and see people
Attitude: the way you react towards some people
Behavior: how friendly or receptive you are towards some people
Attention: which aspect of a person do you pay most attention to
Listening Skills: how much you actively listen to what some people say
Micro-affirmations: how little or how much you give comfort to some people in certain situations
Types of Unconscious Bias
When you mistakenly assess the reasons for other people’s experiences and accomplishments, you call it attribution bias. This usually means that you assume that people’s triumphs are attributable to luck rather than work or competence, which is thought to be the cause of their negative experiences or failures.
Attribution bias can cause managers to overlook candidates’ successes, affecting recruitment and performance evaluations, allowing exceptional people to pass them by who could have otherwise been a valuable contribution to their teams and the company.
Rather than jumping to assumptions, you should carefully investigate the causes behind people’s histories and successes to ensure you don’t fall victim to attribution bias. This can include analyzing performance indicators, thoroughly analyzing an employee’s role in successful or unsuccessful initiatives, and analyzing a variety of work examples in the workplace.
When you treat someone more favorably just because they are similar to you or those you know, this is known as affinity bias or similarity bias. Similarities might encompass anything from likes, dislikes, or looks to schooling or work background.
Affinity bias must be avoided when forming diverse teams. However, when it comes to hiring, it might lead to managers hiring people they like but who aren’t really the best fit in terms of experience or skill set. As a result, it can stifle a company’s growth and function, as well as deny opportunities to otherwise qualified candidates.
Ensure that an applicant’s skills and experience take precedence over factors like history or personality, and use blind recruitment practices to avoid affinity bias.
You have succumbed to confirmation bias when you make decisions or draw conclusions about situations or people based on your own experiences, opinions, or prejudices. Yet, early interactions and experiences with individuals, regardless of their present performance or actions, might impact your enduring, long-term attitudes about them if you submit to it.
In the workplace, minimizing confirmation bias entails giving people a second chance as well as recognizing and disregarding your own prejudices to evaluate people properly. In the context of interviews, this also entails using standardized questions to prevent your biases from showing through as you interrogate potential candidates.
Confirmation bias can be destructive not only to others but can also impair your own decision-making at work. Take this illustration, for example.
A business wants to launch a new service, and the marketing department feels it will be a huge success. Therefore, market research is allocated to a member of the team. During their investigation, they discovered various clues indicating the business may not be as profitable as it was initially believed, but they chose to dismiss the data as an aberration. Instead, they exclusively consider studies that support the team’s existing beliefs.
Confirmation bias clouds your judgment and traps you in a circle of different biases. In this case, all data is not taken into account. Instead, the team looks for evidence indicating the new service will be a significant success.
Conformity bias refers to the pressure you feel to act based on the actions of others rather than your own independent reasoning. The bias is linked to your need to please and conform to others around you.
This prejudice is a significant issue in the workplace since it can lead to groupthink when debates become echo chambers for the same or similar points of view or cultures where decisions aren’t thoroughly questioned. Conformity bias can result in senior employees wielding undue influence over recruiting, promotion, and other company procedures, as well as poor decision-making that negatively impacts business performance.
Create and support a workplace culture that allows employees to express their ideas and opinions constructively and sees bosses actively listening to their teams’ concerns to combat conformity bias.
Also known as beauty bias, attractiveness bias occurs when you perceive attractive people as more competent at their employment while viewing ugly and exceptionally handsome people as less competent.
This bias has its roots in evolutionary psychology, where more attractive people are thought to be more charismatic and persuasive. In contrast, unattractive people are supposed to lack these qualities, and beautiful people are thought to have succeeded in life because of their looks rather than their accomplishments.
To overcome attractiveness bias, make sure that abilities and accomplishments, not beauty standards, are used to determine decisions when hiring, promoting, or managing your workforce.
Gender bias occurs when you have a preference for one gender over the other. Gender bias impacts women significantly more than it does men. It can lead to both women and men employing more male job prospects and having an impact on the positions men and women are perceived to be best at fulfilling.
The impacts of gender bias in the workplace are apparent:
More males in senior positions.
Employing more men than women, and for specific tasks.
Resulting in a team that is defined by its lack of diversity rather than its members’ skills and accomplishments.
To overcome gender bias, resumes must be anonymized, in addition to the setting of diversity hiring targets to ensure that your company’s gender mix is nearly equal.
When you treat others based on preconceptions and broad assumptions that are often wrong, you engage in perception bias. It can include a variety of other biases, such as age, gender, and height, and has similar consequences on organizations, such as rejecting talent and diminishing diversity.
To be ignored, individuals must be conscious of their biases, which can be accomplished by flipping bias when you are about to act on it. This includes shifting the form of bias between the two things you are comparing. For example, the gender of two hires and analyzing how your brains react to the roles being exchanged. If their skills do not match their gender, the probability is relatively high that you are biased.
It is a bias that makes you compare one thing to another even though there are many other things in the set to compare.
Consider recruitment, for example. When faced with 30 resumes or interviews to review, you may find yourself comparing one to the next and ignoring the rest. Even if the following applicant was significantly better than others, one great interview could make the next interviewee appear terrible. On the other hand, a truly bad interviewee can make a mediocre hire appear outstanding.
The result in the workplace could be that exceptional candidates are turned down solely because of their position in the interview process, while good, dependable employees may be denied promotions owing to their meeting timing. Therefore, create well-structured review mechanisms that simultaneously assess all hires or workers, not just some, to counteract the contrast effect.
When you build a whole image of someone based on a single negative feature, it’s called the horns effect. The horns effect, which is the polar opposite of the halo effect, has comparable commercial implications, disqualifying employees who are generally good but have done something potentially small wrong, thereby removing the benefit of the doubt.
A person arriving at an organization for a job interview is one example of this bias. They don’t notice an employee walking behind them when they enter the building, so they don’t hold the door open. But unfortunately, this is the individual who will be conducting the interview. Besides, though the applicant didn’t even see them, their chances to get the job have been skewed because of the tainted judgment of the interviewer of the applicant.
When interviewing potential workers, you must avoid jumping to judgments and use procedures such as standardized interview questions and blind interviewing to prevent the horns effect.
Unconscious bias manifests itself in a variety of ways, making it difficult to determine which to address first and how to do so. However, being conscious of these biases might help you counteract their power over you and make more informed hiring and promotion decisions. Consider an unconscious bias training program for your employees if you want them to learn more about these biases and how and where they can occur in your company. Your team will learn how to recognize and manage different types of prejudice and what rules and procedures to implement to prevent systemic bias in your company.
Why Change is Inevitable- Change is part of life. Nothing can remain still for an extended period of time. Change is necessary forlife, therefore, it is inevitable. No one can live a stationary life as life needs to change to go on.
Essential is to learn from daily life
These changes can affect your relationships, goals, lifestyle, job… etc. So, we have to embrace this aspect and go along with the ups and downs of life. Instead of stressing out about the situation, we should learn from the issues in our life.
These charges vary from one person to another. It is easy for some people to handle it, while others may struggle with these changes.
A person’s capability to respond to these changes is directly proportional to their success or failure.
Factors of Change?
Various factors affect the cause of change. These factors are categorized into two aspects – internal and external factors.
Internal factors – values, culture, beliefs, the pattern of thinking, past experiences
External factors – political views, technological, social, and economic viewpoints
How do internal factors bring change?
Internal factors, such as thought processes, beliefs, and other essential aspects, assist in bringing change. For example, when a person faces an emotional situation, then the difference in their decision or status happens because of the person’s thinking process. If the person thinks positively and constructively, then the change can be positive. On the other hand, the outcome can be harmful if a person thinks negatively.
How do external factors bring to Why Change is Inevitable?
External factors could force a person to bring change in their life. For example, in this technological world, it has become a requirement for everybody to use a mobile phone. It would help if you had a smartphone because other people are using it. If you do not use it, then you may stay behind in this world. So, the change in adopting the habit of using a phone will happen because of external factors.
Learn to Bring Change and Accept it
Here I’m going to explain Learn to Bring Change and Accept it:
Make a Concrete choice
Our minds can lead to change instead of being led by it. However, there are some things you need to teach your mind. It would be best if you had any insight into yourself. You should know your goals, feelings, and emotional capacity. Accept that change is inevitable, and you cannot get rid of it. When you take concrete steps and think about these, you are likely to achieve your goals, your mind will lead you toward the positive changes you want.
Something you Need to Understand about Change is Inevitable
Yet, for most things, change is unavoidable. We should consistently search for development in everything that we do and understand that change is energizing and unavoidable. You should perceive your environmental factors and decide if what you have is sufficient. You would prefer not to resemble the frog, placed into a dish of cold water in the oven. He was content as the water began to heat up, yet he didn’t see the steady changes before it was past the point of no return, and he bubbled to death!
Change is an inevitable part of the lie. It happens so that people make progress, and life moves on. If a person does not accept changes they will remain still are eventually left behind as life moves on. This world is fast-moving, and something new is happening on a daily basis. Social media is a good example of that. Social media has become a platform that is affecting people’s life.
You can see a change in your life because of social media. So, it is recommended that you school your mind to not accept adverse modifications based on these external factors. Instead of that, it should manage things that help bring change to your environment. So, it will not be difficult for the person to accept it.
This is a very common question that where to start when you realize that ‘I want to change the world’.
Have you ever felt trapped by the world around you? Have you ever looked around and thought, ‘this just isn’t right, or this needs to change? If your answer to either of those questions was yes, then please continue reading. Personally, there have been a lot of scenarios in my life where I have witnessed something unjust that angered me and riled me up. It made me so mad that I had to sit there and do nothing while the world runs into chaos. I wanted to do something, but I just couldn’t. I felt paralyzed. So I decided to do something about it.
How and why do I want to change the world?
First off, before we get into how we need to start with the why, why do you want to change the world? Will you only benefit from it? If your answer to the latter is yes. Then stop right there. Your motives for changing the world aren’t right. When wanting to change something, it’s important to make sure you are changing it properly and not making things worse. Therefore, before you start, you need to ensure that by doing what you are doing, you aren’t harming anyone around you and that this decision will benefit many people and not just yourself.
Now that we got that out of the way let’s talk about the reason why you are all here. How am I going to change the world? Let me start by saying that it isn’t going to be easy, far from it. But it would help if you started somewhere. There are a lot of people that won’t support you, and at times, it will feel like you aren’t making any progress or that this project isn’t heading anywhere. But the key here is commitment and perseverance. Because if you aren’t prepared to fail multiple times or run into a ton of objects along the road, then you just aren’t fit for this.
The main steps needed to carry out your dreams
Your first step is going to be setting a goal of having a vision of what you want. I find mind mapping to be a great way of building any idea from a few words to a fully-fledged idea. Mind mapping will allow you to sort through the mess of thoughts in your head and turn them into coherent steps.
Once you have a clear vision of what you want to do, you are going to need a platform to spread the said idea and find like-minded people to support your idea forward. The black sheep community is a great example of that we wanted to change people’s views on people considered outcasts, so we made this website to find like-minded people and share our thoughts on topics we wanted to discuss. Your platform could be online like (Twitter, LinkedIn, a website, Instagram, Facebook. Tik Tok, YouTube, and the list goes on), or it could be by hosting seminars and lectures. Whichever way you decide to share your message, the most important thing is that you do it.
This process may take months; it may take years. But if you are passionate enough about your ideas, then, in the end, they will persevere. Be patient. You can’t change the world overnight.
“Dreams are lovely. But they are just dreams. Fleeting, ephemeral, pretty. But dreams do not come true just because you dream them. It’s hard work that makes things happen. It’s hard work that creates change.” – Shonda Rhimes
It’s all about the little things to change the world
Changing the world doesn’t have to be this intricate and complex process. You can change the world by performing very simple yet very effective actions that would create a huge impact in the long run.
this may seem like a very repetitive request or even considered a cliché, but you have no idea how much of a change it can cause. A simple compliment could completely turn a stranger’s day around. A warm smile could put a smile on others’ faces. It’s the small acts of kindness that matter in the end.
Mind your business
That sentence may seem a little blunt, but it is something that needed to be said. Something I’ve noticed all around the world is people’s incessant need to stick their noses in what doesn’t involve them. People love to judge all those around them. Here’s some advice that would make you a happier person in the long run; leave people be, and let everyone be who they want to be. As long as no one is hurting, you leave them alone and let them live their lives.
Fix your schedule
A lot of the time, we feel like our life is spiraling out of control, and we feel like we have no idea what we are doing, and that’s completely normal. You aren’t expected to have your life put together at all times. Planning out your day, week, or year is very helpful. I would help you sort through all those thoughts in your mind.
What is belief bias vs belief perseverance? Wikipedia defined belief bias as the tendency to judge the strength of an argument based on the plausibility of their conclusion rather than how strongly they support the conclusion. It is one of the most common cognitive biases. This means that we are more likely to accept the outcome of something if it matches our core values. It is an extremely common error. Believe bias also emphasizes that when a person makes an argument, we agree once the conclusion matches our beliefs. You are presuming on the validity of someone’s argument when belief bias comes into play. The belief is based on the believability of the person’s conclusion.
On the other hand, belief perseverance can be defined as the tendency to stick to one’s belief in the face of evidence that contradicts them. This comes when people show unwavering faith in certain beliefs and refuse to change when proved wrong. Believe perseverance is said to be a state wherein a person refuses to change his belief after being proven wrong. It also refers to belief persistence. It is the inability of people to accept new ways that contradict their beliefs. Simply put as holding on to a belief when they are not supposed to do so.
Relationship between belief bias and belief perseverance
One might think it is not bad to maintain core values and principles. It is not bad at all; in fact, it is good to stick to one’s values and principles. Our core values are what describe us. They blend in with our character and present us to people. Core values distinct you out of the many. That is where the issue of belief bias comes in. Human beings generally support a conclusion that relates to their belief. That’s human. In belief bias, we just ignore the premise and consider the conclusion.
People tend to support conclusions not based on validity but on how it conforms to their beliefs and practices. Belief bias makes people put their values first above any other thing. In the reasoning, judgment, and decision-making process, belief bias favors values and neglects validity. Their judgment is sentimentally clouded by their values and principles. Such people can stick to those values even after being proven wrong. The relationship between belief bias and belief perseverance is glaring.
A person can combine the two. Once he accepts a conclusion based on conformity to his values, it will be very hard to change even if proven wrong. The defense of his values will not allow him to easily give them up. It can also happen in the way a manager runs his company. A leader can stick to maintaining values while making decisions. When considering ideas to implement, a leader can cancel an idea once it doesn’t conform to the values of the group.
People are likely to endorse an argument if the conclusion doesn’t alter their beliefs and values.
A company might fail to perform or sign some deals with other companies that don’t conform to their values.
Errors in belief perseverance
Here are some Errors in belief perseverance:
This belief perseverance error occurs when people fail to integrate new knowledge and end up retaining their old beliefs. This often happens when people are not open to change. New information can alter their conclusion and judgments.
This error is belief perseverance, in which people look for information that confirms their beliefs. They tend to overlook that information that contradicts their beliefs. A common example is only considering the positive sides of investment and ignoring the negative part.
Illusion of Control
The illusion of control is an error of belief perseverance in which people think they can influence the outcome when they cannot. This thought can be persuasive enough to make decisions. The illusion of control influences our judgments and decision by giving us certain reliability on what we know.
In this error, people use past experience or information to classify new information. This is shown when using historical trends to determine conclusions. It is judging the past information as the standard for new information.
Hindsight bias is seeing actions as predictable occurrences without a shred of substantial evidence backing it. In this error, people see past events as unfailing and inevitable.
Factors that can influence belief bias
Time: Research has shown that the amount of time available for thinking can influence the conclusion. If the time available is small, there is a higher probability of belief biased conclusions. And if the time available is much, there is time for logical reasoning. There is an imbalance in logical thinking and belief bias thinking with time differences.
Nature of argument: The nature of argument has a lot to say when deciding the conclusion. A negative argument will attract an emotional conclusion from the people. For instance, when dealing with issues pertaining to children and women, emotional support is attached. A neutral argument will be treated logically.
Available resources and instructions: In an experiment carried out in 1994. People were given detailed information about the subject which requires them to make logical conclusions. A higher percentage of the people reject invalid arguments with convincing conclusions. The same set of people was given arguments with little information about the argument. The result was belief-biased. It shows that the effects of belief bias can be reduced when elaborate information and resources are available.
Factors that can influence belief perseverance
Belief perseverance can be influenced by some factors, they include:
Readiness to change: The willingness to change can bring about belief perseverance. When people are not ready to change, they will stick to their beliefs. The change will require people to adopt new information. New information will bring about a shift in belief. No matter how much you try to change a person, the efforts will be futile if the readiness is not there.
Religious or ethnic stronghold: Religion and ethnic morality blindfold people from seeing the light even when their beliefs have been proven wrong. It is very hard to change a religious fanatic. They tend to accept assumptions based on their religious or ethnic standards. When all odds are against their beliefs, they still hold onto it. Religious and ethnic fanatics are always partial with judgment and conclusion. They analyze every argument from their religious or ethnic standards.
Fear of being left out: The fear of being left out can influence belief perseverance. It commonly happens among peers or groups. Once a member of a group sees the light, the fear of being tagged a betrayal keeps them a prisoner of their belief.
Types of belief perseverance
There are three types of belief perseverance:
Self-impression: This is the belief about one’s self. Such beliefs include everything from the body looks, shape, and figure to skills, intelligence, and abilities. It is a way a person sees themselves.
Social impression: It is the belief about other people. We have different impressions about some specific people. These people include family members, friends, or someone we know through social media.
Social theory: Social theory is the belief about how the world works. It includes beliefs about the way some groups of people think, interact and behave. The social theory also encompasses ethnic disparity, stereotypes, racial differences, gender roles, etc.
How to counter belief bias and belief perseverance
So far, we have decisions to make; we may be guilty of them anytime. If not eradicated, they can be reduced. What are the ways to counter them?
One of the ways to do that is flexibility in argument, judgment, and decision-making. The rigidity can cause belief bias and belief perseverance. Flexibility is characterized by the readiness to change and adapt to new or different requirements. Another thing is to be open to change. Be willing to learn new things and comprehend new ideas.
In addition, don’t be stuck in the past. Try as much as possible not to be influenced by past experience. Ask for people’s opinions if you feel you are biased in your belief or belief persevere. Ask a trusted friend for a different point of view other than what you already know.
Finally, belief bias and belief perseverance can help you attain confidence about what you know or what your value stands for. In some cases, it can block you from making the right decisions. Try and question things, gather information about something before making a judgment or drawing a conclusion.