The principle of Premack arises in the context of operatic conditioning. And it supports the existence of a psychological dimension that is determining the repetition or disappearance of behavior. This measurement is the value that an individual contributes to a particular event generated by their interaction with the event.
This principle was one of the great tenets of operators in the mid-twentieth century. It broke the traditional definition of “reinforcement,” which had important implications in models of training and motivation studies.
Premack Principle: Definition and Origin
Between 1954 and 1959, the North American psychologist David Premack and his wife and collaborator Ann James Premack conducted various studies of the operant’s conditions. And analyzed the behavior of monkeys belonging to the genus Cebus.
The research was initially conducted at the Yerx Primate Biology Laboratory in Florida. At the University of Missouri, Columbia, at the University of California, and finally at the University of Pennsylvania.
Premack’s hypothesis was as follows. Any A response would back up any answer B.If and only if the probability of an A response appearing is greater than the probability of a B response. They wanted to prove that a different response could amplify a rare behavioral response. If the latter implied a greater preference over the former.
In other words, the Premack principle states that if there is behavior or activity of little interest, it is likely that such behavior does not spontaneously occur. However, immediately after that, there is an opportunity to perform another behavior or activity that is of interest. Thus the first (the one that is of little interest) will significantly increase the probability of repetition.
The principle of Premack Contribution to operant air conditioning
In Skinner’s operant conditioning, backers are stimuli that tend to increase the frequency of the behavior. Thus, the very definition of “reinforcing” was given by its influence on behavior, by which any incentive could amplify behavior whenever it acted. It is done that the effort itself was at the center of efforts to increase any behavior.
But, testing Premack’s hypothesis, Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning takes an important turn: by not functioning absolutely, the amplifiers work relatively.
The amplifier does not matter in itself; it is important how many possibilities of response the individual offers. In this sense, what determines the effect of an event is the value that the subject attributes to the event itself. For this theory, the central answers are that what increases the appearance of behavior is not so much “reinforcement” as a series of “reinforcing events.”
The theory of deprivation of the answer
Subsequently, other experiments and studies conducted in operatic conditioning have called into question the Premack principle.
Among them is the theory of deprivation of the answer. In a broad sense, this suggests that there are situations in which restricting access to an amplifying response does not increase the preference for an effective response, as it is. Increase motivation first, and therefore several behaviors associated with it. In short, this assumes that the less you can access behavior, the more motivation you generate.
Value according to this theory
According to Pereira, Caicedo, Gutierrez, and Sandoval (1994), given the importance that Premack’s principal attributes the motivation generated by supporting events. One of the central concepts in Premack’s principle is “value,” the definition of which can be summarized and defined as follows:
Organisms organize world events according to a hierarchy of values.
The value is measured by the probability that the body reacts to an irritant. In turn, the probability can be measured by the duration of interaction with the specified response. That is, the more time it takes to act, the greater the value it has to the individual.
If a more valuable event is presented immediately after another less valuable one, the latter’s behavior is enhanced. Similarly, the least valuable event and behavior that interferes with it acquire “instrumental” value.
If the opposite effect occurs (the lower-value event occurs immediately after the higher value), what happens is the punishment for instrumental behavior. This means that the probability of repeating the least meaningful behavior decreases.
Similarly, “value” is defined as a psychological dimension that individuals assign to events, such as assigned other properties (e.g., size, color, weight). In the same sense, the value is assigned according to a specific interaction that the individual sets with the event.
This psychological dimension determines the likelihood of the occurrence or disappearance of behavior, i.e., the effect of reinforcement or punishment. Thus, to make sure that behavior occurs or expires, it is important to analyze the value that the individual attributes to it.
The above implies an analysis of the individual’s current and previous interactions with an event that needs to be enhanced and the ability to generate other responses or events.
Experiment with pinball and sweets
To sum it all up, we described an experiment that David Premack and his collaborators conducted with children. In the first part, they were presented with two alternatives (which were called “answers”): eating candy or playing a pinball machine.
Thus, it was possible to determine which of these two behaviors was more likely to be repeated for each child (and with this, the level of preference was determined).
In the second part of the experiment, children were told that they could eat candy if they first played a pinball machine. Thus, “eating candy” was a reinforcement of the answer, and “playing with a pinball machine” was an effective response. The result of the experiment was that only children who preferred to “eat candy” were less likely to support their behavior or be less interested in “playing with a pinball machine.”
Intuitive Thinking is an innovative way of thinking that helps you achieve initiative in life. Learning mechanisms often heavily rely on intuitive visual Thinking, finding out the relationships between concepts in life. And having clear and specific space and time. Therefore, the role of intuitive diagrams is not only to solve the problem but also to show our creativity. Let’s learn about this creativemindset.
Visual Thinking and Creative Thinking?
Visual Thinking is born late and is more complex than visual thinking action. It makes its first appearance at age three and works intensely over time to help develop better creative Thinking. Developing visual Thinking in a child’s preschool years is very good.
The concept of intuitive thinking diagramsis understood as the kind of mindset that solves the problem based on images of things, phenomena. This is a creative mindset that helps you have many ideas and create an initiative in life.
Features of visually Thinking an image is the direct observation that the subject does not lead immediately to the action, which becomes the image of the subject in the observer’s mind. Afterward, the observer used them to visualize at the beginning of the problem and its changes. Thus, subjects are now seen at different angles and create new combinations of subjects. This characteristic shows us an intuitive diagram of reality.
Anyone born is capable of creative thinking, but you don’t use it, that ability will wane over time. So visual Thinking is a way to help you develop a creative thinking mind. You can try thinking differently about many problems, things, real phenomena based on image icons without direct exposure. From there, find the methods of solving your work as quickly as possible, achieving the highest results.
Intuitive thinking diagrams help you develop yourself.
Unfortunately, not many people believe that creativity Is part of your human nature. You can train and enhance creative Thinking through the evolving game of intuitive visual development.
Mentioning this, many people will immediately think of the game developing visual Thinking of preschool children. Because of those, as mentioned above, visual diagrams, images are mostly enhanced during your youth. Then the discovery of new things and the ability to imagine will develop.
The development of intuitive visual Thinking is due to repeated action with the object. For example, in a role-playing game, you know this substitute for another object and is pretending to be a substitute for the real object. It is symbolic sign action, shortened action, which is the basis for developing visual Thinking.
This visually-developed diagram gameis really useful and can help you grow as a person.
Visual Thinking does not stop at imagining the phenomena into a “subjective picture” in the brain but also develops the ability to symbolize a picture, thereby the concept of the intuitive thinking diagram appears. So what is an intuitive diagram? In essence, it is a form of intuitive visual Thinking but at a higher level. Here, the image is no longer a real image of the object that has become the symbol, the synoptic symbol.
4 Kinds of Intuitive Thinking
1. Mental Intuitive Thinking
Mental intuitive thought refers to the capacity to solve an issue without the need for deliberation or comprehensive study. This intuitive ability is usually recognized or suited for vocations that need rapid choices, such as firemen, negotiation specialists, and so on.
2. Emotional Intuitive Thinking
Emotional intuition is the capacity to instantaneously detect another person’s emotional state and personality qualities. A higher emotional intuitive quotient may indicate more empathy for others, implying that in addition to detecting one’s energy vibrations and knowing how they’re feeling, one may also observe a scenario from their point of view.
3. Psychic Intuitive Thinking
Psychic intuitive thinking entails solving an issue during a crisis or deciding on the best course of action in a tough scenario without making any explicit mental effort. Psychic intuitive thought might help you avoid harmful influences or figure out your social dynamics.
4. Spiritual Intuitive Thinking
Spiritual intuition, as opposed to fact-based reasoning, is concerned with one’s own self-awareness and experience. This type of intuition is tied to one’s connection with the higher dimension and enhanced consciousness, and it is intimately related to Buddhist ideas, making it virtually supernatural.
A person with an assertive personality has a Self-assured and self-conscious temperament. There is a great variety of temperaments and personalities, which exist in human behavioral psychology. Such a kind of self-assurance in temperament and character resultantly produces the best kind of leaders for a nation. However, imperfection does exist in human nature. No one can claim complete perfection or adoption of certain highly ranked behavior in communication.
How are you as a person? Do you feel like you’re a go-getter, willing to take risks, and don’t mind stepping up to the plate when necessary? Or do you prefer to be more of a cautious listener? Assertive personalities are viewed as the go-getters, while passive personalities are looked at as the more cautious ones. But what do we really know about assertive personalities? How are they different from other types of personalities? And how can they help us to better lead our teams?
To make mistakes is human, and thus, humans may possess some chunks of personality traits in either type of personality. One of the misconceptions regarding the adoption of an assertive personality is that a person is born confident and assertive. That is surely a myth, as the traits of the assertive personality can be adopted over some time through tremendous efforts. However, some of the traits of an assertive personality do exist since birth in a person. Historically and observingly, this type of disposition is quite helpful in communication and negotiation.
Historically prominent people such as Pablo Picasso, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Lyndon Johnson, and Indira Gandhi are all exemplary examples of assertive personalities in history. An assertive personality possesses a common set of chief characteristics that might vary from one person to another. But the major characteristics include:
Self-Assured, self-acquainted, self-conscious:
A person with an assertive personality knows their strengths and weaknesses. Their self-introspection strengthens their potential to cover up their weaknesses. They are never a victim of manipulation because of their awareness regarding themselves. Neither they are naïve enough to become a victim of someone’s boasting or buttering to take advantage of their strengths manipulatively. A person with an assertive personality has the caliber of gauging and scrutinizing themselves constantly. They spent a major chunk of their time on self-introspection.
The exploration and discoveries of self-interests make them more consistent and persistent in their pursued motives. They remain conscious of their conscience and never inhibit their intuitive calls from inside. He/she knows the inner click and can distinguish between right and wrong. Whereas, a person with a passive or aggressive personality hardly spares time for self-introspection. Those other personalities easily get distracted and messed up with their burning desires of pursuing aims and motives in life.
A person with an assertive personality knows well about the attainment of chasing dreams peacefully. Their self-acquainted nature makes them more inclined and determined when focusing on their dreams. For this reason, the self-introspected and self-confident stay calm and peaceful in pursuing their ambitions.
Assertive Personality holder as Effective communicators:
Assertive personality holders are effective communicators. The effectiveness of communication can be gauged from their eloquence of speech in communication. They never fall into unnecessary fights while arguing with a person. Their effectiveness can be gauged from the level of their utmost intelligence when pursuing a person in an argument. An aggressive person can become an easy victim of fights and disagreements.
Whereas, an assertive person maintains respect and boundaries when dealing with a personal grudge. It has been seen in aggressive people’s conversations that the parties fall into disagreements and fights over petty discussions. On the contrary, an assertive person has the intrinsic qualities of maintaining good relations besides arguing for personal rights. The relations of such a self-confident person grow rather than reach a breaking point.
It has been seen in aggressive and passive personalities’ communication levels, that the corresponding party is always disappointed with their favors. Whereas, an assertive person maintains their individuality after availing the benefits of relations and communication. People never remain disappointed in such self-confident personalities.
Respectful toward self-rights and other’s rights:
An assertive person is always just regarding other rights as well as his/her rights. They are well acquainted and familiarized with others’ rights. Besides this, their persuasion and efforts towards getting their rights are made peacefully. The self-rights are availed in a manner that none of the other’s rights are snatched. An assertive personality always avoids those shortcuts of getting their due share of rights done by a manipulative personality.
They accept and value others’ rights and shares. The negligence toward other rights is not given by them unconsciously. Likewise, an assertive personality makes efforts to assist and support a weaker person by pursuing his/her rights in an upright manner. Resultantly, people around a person with an assertive personality never keep a grudge or grievances against him/her. The dealings are done so well on their behalf, that the people are happily convinced to deliver the due right and share such a self-confident personality. The persuasion of their rights is never done aggressively by an asserter.
In a nutshell, an assertive personality has an upright attitude of convincing and pursuing their goals without offending anyone. Relationships of such people always have the quality of maintaining boundaries. A healthy relationship is one that sets boundaries of respect and space. Thus, a person with an assertive personality has the desired quality of maintaining boundaries with other people. Likewise, not only do they remain aware of/her rights, but they also /accept and validate others’ rights in an upright manner.
Their feelings and thoughts are so eloquently expressed that the correspondent is not offended easily. The individuality and self-respect of such people always remain intact while demanding their rights from others. Though a passive person equally or more likely tends to sacrifice his/her need for others, still the acceptance and self-esteem of the assertive personality holder are more attractive to the people. In the same way, such a confident person can gain prominence among people for their highly professional emotional response toward others. Thus, an assertive personality can maintain respect in dealings and relationships.
5 Characteristics of an Assertive Person
Being assertive is all about respecting yourself and others without trampling on their rights. Some of the characteristics of assertive people are:
Assertive people have a sense of self-confidence. They know their boundaries, However, people who struggle with assertiveness often permit others to make decisions for themselves. So, to test your self-confidence level, ask yourself whether you are taking part in a particular activity because you are genuinely interested or it’s because some of your peers are doing it.
2. Respect the views of others:
Assertive people are confident about their stand and as such, they don’t feel the need to insult others for airing their opinions. You may be pro-life; and yet, as an assertive person, you will still be able to share your views strongly and disagree with abortion activists without insulting the other side personally.
3. Ability to draw the limit:
It’s not always possible to be on cordial terms with others. You may have come across some people who are prone to abuse or are bitter in their outlook. And, when you meet such people, there some forms of tension will be created. An assertive person will know the perfect time when to say “it’s enough” according to the situation. In simple terms, assertive people can draw a clear line, but without creating conflict.
4. Good listener:
It is quite common for couples to fight and some of them hardly have the time to listen to each other. The end result is that both sides end up without being heard. It is important to remember that assertive traits include being a good listener; good eye contact and the ability to reflect on what has been said to grab the actual meaning of the exchange of words.
5. Emotionally independent:
An assertive person is also able to tolerate and accept rejection. They don’t do things for the sake of receiving approval from their peers or co-workers. They do it to satisfy their professional goals, beliefs, and convictions. Yes, it’s true that assertive people also would love acknowledgment from others, but even if they don’t get any; they never fall into the temptation to act against their principles.
When someone is born, he or she is born with the potential to be a leader. But the reality is, that most people never develop the necessary traits to take them to the next level. So, what can you do to successfully develop your assertive personality? First of all, you need to understand its meaning. Assertiveness is a characteristic of the personality that can be described as a combination of two other personality traits: self-confidence and self-assertion.
Assertive personality plays a key role in being successful in life. It is a part of a manager’s personality, but it is not the primary one. It is a kind of leadership that goes beyond leadership skills.
According to the philosopher, von Kisling, assertive personality is a character trait in which the person has an ability to control and manage his or her own emotions and feelings. It is an ability to assert one’s true identity and views.
Cultural psychology is a multidisciplinary topic that brings together psychologists, anthropologists, linguists, and philosophers to investigate how cultural meanings, practices, and institutions shape and reflect individual human psychologies.
Cultural psychology differs from other fields not just in terms of organization, but also in terms of philosophy. Cultural psychologists, in contrast to psychologists who think their findings and theories are universal until shown otherwise, consider that their findings and theories are culturally flexible.
Connection to Cross-cultural Psychology
The closest relative of cross-cultural psychology is cultural psychology. Here we note some of the installations that may represent it and its characteristics. Since this psychology does not have a clear organizational and methodological structure, it is difficult to determine exactly where cross-cultural psychology ends and cultural psychology begins.
Moreover, the majority of cross-cultural psychology adherents agree on the range of problems. Before it (this is mainly a test of the universal applicability of psychological laws and theories using different methodologies), those who identify with cultural psychology do not seem to have clear guidelines or programmed definitions of the objectives of their activities.
However, it seems that this type of psychology advocate is not concerned about the lack of clear targets or methodological guidelines. Perhaps it is correct to say that the representation of adherents of this psychology about themselves and their own work is more global. This affects both the formation of concepts and research, as well as their articles and comments concerning the central role of culture in understanding human psychology.
Above, we pointed out that cross-cultural psychology should be defined primarily by what it does, without resorting to these hastily defined definitions. Equally kindly we intend to dispense with this psychology. Arguing that it should be defined primarily because of what it does. Thus given its views on the relationship between the individual and the culture of the individual.
Point of Miller
Miller (Miller, 1997) notes that the fundamental premise of cultural psychology is that culture and personality behavior are inextricably linked components of a single phenomenon.
He believes that this view contradicts the tendency of early works on cross-cultural psychology to separate culture and psychology, treating them as separate phenomena. At the same time, culture was defined as an independent variable that affects the dependent variable behavior of the individual. Bouie (Boesch, 1991) was the leader of the Saarbrucken School of Cultural Psychology.
He was highly critical of the treatment of culture as an independent variable. And the application of positivist or natural science yearns to understand the representatives of other cultures. Bosch writes in his curious article about what he calls the family “flaws” of cross-cultural psychology, from conceptual and methodological to philosophical. A special issue of Psychology and Culture (September 1997) focused on Bosch’s ideas and the influence of other authors.
Distinguishing features of cultural psychology
As already noted, this psychology is not a unified scientific discipline. Several of the most prolific cultural researchers assess the difference between cross-cultural psychology and cultural psychology in different ways. For example, Cole defines the main distinguishing features of this psychology:
It attaches particular importance to considering indirect action in context;
Also, it emphasizes the importance of the widely understood “genetic method” that includes historical, ontogenetic, and micro genetic levels of analysis;
It seeks to find evidence of the results of the analysis in everyday life;
It believes that the mind is formed in the joint mediated activities of humans. Hence it is, in a significant sense, “jointly built” and distributed;
She believed that personality was an active factor in one’s development. But that it was not completely free to choose from certain conditions;
It rejects the science that explains phenomena as cause-and-effect. Or stimulus-response in favor of science, which prioritizes mental activity. That arises in the process of activity and recognizes the central role of interpretation in the process of interpreting phenomena;
It uses the humanities methodology along with the methodology of social and biological sciences.
So, what does a Cultural Psychologist do?
Cultural psychology is an interdisciplinary subject of psychology that was born out of a growing awareness of the world’s cultural diversity. This field’s core thesis is that human behavior and culture are inextricably linked; that is, people are shaped by culture, and culture, in turn, shapes people.
Cultural psychologists study how individuals and civilizations are influenced by cultural practices, institutions, and meanings. But this study is about more than just customs and languages; it’s also about understanding what motivates human conduct – different cultures’ attitudes, thoughts, and deeds.
Although cultural psychologists are more likely to undertake study, they also work in academia or in government, such as analyzing the core causes of poverty in a specific region of the world. Cultural psychologists are also interested in a wide range of themes, including the socio-cultural foundations of human behavior, the major variables that drive distinct cultures’ moral and ethical perspectives, social decision-making, and ethnopolitical conflict.
Law of attraction affirmations is the healthier mental statements that help to invigorate turning them into a reality. In simpler words, it means, what you think and feel; you will receive back through a force in the universe. The prominent personalities have tested the Law of attraction affirmations.
Positive people believe that you can translate thoughts in your mind into reality. People get skeptical of the importance of thoughts and adopt the chain of hopelessness and shortsightedness because of bad incidents. Though, they rarely are convinced by the important role of the Law of attraction affirmations in life. Their whole shitty experience becomes an outcome of their thoughts and feelings.
Negating this Law is similar to psychological suicide to oneself. The person receiving negativity in life is an outcome of his/her consecutive thinking pattern. The decision to embrace bliss or ruin depends upon the willpower of the person to ponder on the importance of the Law of attraction affirmations.
How the Law of attraction affirmations work?
The Law of attraction affirmations helps the person employ the required energy in chasing fruitful projects. Every single happening of the world has resultantly evolved through the power of beliefs and visions. The person envisions and chooses the future events of his/her life.
The law takes control of your inner body cells and the entire system, which shapes your consciousness and unconsciousness accordingly. It aligns your thought and physical activity patterns to direct your attention and stamina to materialize them into actuality. Some pessimists negate the critical role of this law in one’s life. However, seeing and observing the in-depth thought pattern and belief system of a pessimist can give enough evidential proof of how the Law of attraction affirmations has affected their lives.
For this reason, scientists have reached a consensus in believing the substantial role of this law on one’s life. In short, this quote would be truly suitable that: “Garbage in; garbage out.” Thus, thoughts and beliefs play a critical role in mapping one’s conscious and unconscious state of mind effectively.
Implications of the Law of attraction affirmations on one’s life:
The following are the manifestations after choosing constructive Law of attraction affirmations in one’s head:
Affecting one’s consciousness and unconsciousness:
This law has an undoubtedly effect on one’s conscious and unconscious state of mind. Your random uncontrolled thoughts enter into your conscious state of mind and then unintentionally and powerlessly control your unconscious being. The person becomes powerless in front of their unconscious state of mind.
The mind program to channelize those positive thoughts, which ultimately results in translating those Law of attraction affirmations rigorously. Thus, the conscious and unconscious state of mind gets powerfully strong.
Inculcate the attitude of proactive personality:
This law instills a positive outlook and proactive personality in a person. The person becomes more inclined toward a proactive reaction for hindrances and hurdles. The person hardly behaves reactively toward difficult circumstances. Patience and forbearance become two strengthening qualities of the person, who repeatedly boost him/herself through the Law of attraction affirmations. Thus, the person becomes more rational and upright when dealing with difficult people or circumstances.
Waves of gratitude in life:
Once the person repeatedly adopts this law in life, waves of gratitude will then take a cloud upon a person’s life. The person felt content and satisfied with blessings despite possessing deprivations.
He/she has a positive demeanor toward life and people because of showing gratitude toward numerous possessions. Likewise, the gratitude expands and multiplies their possessions exponentially. Without gratitude, one’s life becomes constricted. The person unleashes their self out of the prison of negativity through gratitude and abundance affirmations.
Become a healthy person with a constructive mind:
The Law of attraction affirmations strengthens one’s thought pattern constructively and healthily. The person develops the stamina, and tolerance never is affected by the negativity in his/her surrounding. Not a single manipulative person can affect a positive, optimistic mindset easily. The mind becomes a powerhouse of constructive ambitions. The decision-making process of the person improves rigorously.
Besides this, backup plans and alternative plans are easily created by a positive person through the adoption of this Law. Hence, the mind is hardly bombarded by negative thoughts of uncertainty.
Healthy mind, healthy body:
Once the mind gets strengthened and healthy through the Law of abundance affirmations, then the body eventually becomes healthy. The body is rarely subjected to becoming the victim of mental stress; as the positive thoughts and believing in it, strengthens the body’s stamina to pursue those goals and targets. Research has shown that positive thoughts have a tremendously strong effect on one’s physical health. And the health of an optimistic person has as proven to be splendid.
Thus, the Law of attraction affirmations eventually improves one’s physical health as well.
Thus, concluding the discussion on the Law of attraction affirmations, we can say that it changes a person’s lifestyle miraculously. It results in getting productive outcomes outstandingly. The person knows his/herself and never requires anyone to dictate or assist him/her in self-exploration. An optimistic person sets healthy boundaries in relationships through the Law of attraction affirmations. The relationships of positive people are healthy. Likewise, the person gets to know the art of saying no in a healthy manner to any relation, when he/she cannot meet the criteria of the person. Positive thoughts instill confidence and firm belief in one’s abilities.
Thus, this law ultimate effect on one’s well-being cannot be denied. It miraculously changes the lifestyle and fate of a person.